Bibliographical Listing of Secondary Literature

Acknowledgements and Thanks

Special thanks go first and foremost to my wife Aileen Kane, to whom I dedicate this work, and to my collaborator Rick Peterson, without whom this bibliographical listing would never have been completed—both Aileen and Pete were there at the beginning of this project and are still with me as it nears completion.

Rick Peterson, Chief Technology Officer, Washington and Lee University, in Lexington, Virginia

My friend Pete has heard me talk about Ernst Barlach since about the time I started working on my PhD dissertation in 1982 and shortly after he graduated with a degree in Computer Science from Northwestern University. Always many years ahead of me with regard to matters of technology, he browbeat me into switching from writing my dissertation on a typewriter to composing text on the earliest 512k Macintosh computers. In the early nineties, after convincing me to trade up to more powerful hardware and software, he patiently explained how I could generate macros to mark fields in my bibliographical listing and in a primitive fashion to produce sub-listings. Even then he presciently advised me to consider publishing my bibliographical listing online instead of in hardcopy, although it took me ten more years to get around to heeding his advice.

A few years ago, while Pete was Director for Academic and Research Computing at Rice University, in Houston, Texas, he grew intrigued by the possibilities offered by as a digital repository and offered to take charge of everything connected with the Barlach-project that was related to computing, if I would update the listing of entries and then release it as an online resource. Pete can be very persuasive. Librarians at Rice told him about the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), and he figured that with a few PERL scripts he could auto-generate a fairly clean, and properly TEI-tagged, XML document that would require only a bit of cleanup by me.

That was in 2006. Since then, we have worked together on the online version of this bibliographical listing, which became ever more interesting even for me as a digital humanities demonstrator project (proof of concept) as it became less interesting from the standpoint of content—that is, I already knew I could generate a very substantial bibliographical listing in Word and produce camera-ready copy suitable as a one-off publication in book form through a conventional academic press; however, I grew far more interested in seeing what it would take to convert this listing to, or rather, reconceive this project entirely as, an editable and updatable online resource.

In essence, bringing this project online became an entirely new research project for me: navigating the intricacies of the TEI guidelines and eventually having to enroll in a tagging workshop to learn how to implement properly these guidelines; learning to use an XML editor; striving to communicate somewhat knowledgeably with XSLT programmers so that with each iteration of the beta version there were fewer bugs; assessing the strengths and weaknesses of various digital repositories; and so on. Every conceptual idea I had was run through Pete (I did not need to resort to skype to visualize him shaking his head at some of my ideas); almost every e-mail that went out to Quinn,, and Jacob was filtered first by Pete and oftentimes kicked back to me for revision.

In short, this online bibliographical listing is as much Pete's creation as it is my own. I can only hope he does not regret having spent so many years helping out his old buddy from Northwestern Univeristy. He knows I will be forever indebted to him for providing more than just the starting point in this project with TEI, XML,, PERL, and early XSL-Transformations to demonstrate to me the possibilities afforded by an online version of the original listing; for always keeping me pointed in the right direction with regard to technology; for gently and not so gently nudging me to accept his suggestions for improvements related to the Barlach-project; for translating so effectively highly ideolectical Hooperian humanities-speak into intelligible tech-talk for colleagues at; for letting me bend his ear when he probably felt I did not need to; for doing what only one good friend would do for another.

I would like to acknowledge having received truly generous assistance from the following individuals and organizations, listed in roughly reverse chronological order.

Quinn Dombrowski, Scholarly Technology and Research Computing (STARC), University of Chicago, in Chicago, Illinois; and also project staff member extraordinaire for

The Mighty Quinn appears to have been charged in fall 2008 by Kaylea to coordinate conceptual work related to the online version of the bibliographical listing, after it was accepted as a demonstrator project by the organizers of I would bet that at the outset, she had no idea how long she would remain involved with the project, how truly clueless I really was with regard to computing and technology, or how serious Pete and I were about wrapping up at least Stage I (a website in good working order). Quinn, like Pete, stuck with me through thick and thin and worked on this project when I know she had no time to do so, given all the other responsibilities she has at the University of Chicago. More specifically, Quinn coordinated work done by Marques, Miller, Mason, and Jett and also produced the base XSLT style sheets. She is understandably leery about embarking on Stage II (generalizing from this specific case). So, too, am I.

Jacob Jett, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, in Illinois; XSLT wizard

When it became clear to Pete, Quinn, and me, in Spring 2009 that we needed someone to dedicate a goodly number of hours to finishing up the XSLT work required to get the website up and running, Jacob was identified and then supervised by Quinn. In the final push to complete this project, Jacob communicated directly with me—which probably made both Pete and Quinn very nervous, given my limited grasp of so many computer-related issues (because I always cc’d them, they did intervene whenever it became clear I was uttering nonsense). Over the course of a good few months, I sent nearly daily e-mails to Jacob, with attachments I called Punch Lists, which must have at times driven him mad. He never complained; rather, he bulldozed flat every mountainous Punch List I generated. Finally—much to my own surprise—I had to concede to Jacob, Quinn, and Pete I could think of no ways to further improve the website and could find no glitches or anomalies worth fixing. Many professors have TEI projects stuck at the stage of clean XML documents that still need to be converted to human readable form, i.e., a website. Without patient and competent XSLT programmers—and there are very few of them on college campuses because they are so seldom needed—these projects will end up as orphans or be abandoned. I will be forever grateful that both Quinn and Jacob came through for me, when it came time to do all the transform work.

Molly Tamarkin, Chief Technology Officer, University of Puget Sound, in Tacoma, Washington, 2008-2009.

Molly alerted Pete and me to, and from early summer 2008 through spring 2009, the three of us were able to attend almost all of the workshops hosted by this organization. Without Molly’s support and this connection to, Pete and I would undoubtedly still be at least another year from completion of this project. Ultimately, it also came down to Molly to agree to use Puget Sound funding to hire Jacob to do the final XSLT work.

One can read on the website that “Project Bamboo is a planning and community design program where through a series of conversations and workshops, we are mapping out the scholarly practices and common technology challenges across and among disciplines to discover where a coordinated, cross-disciplinary development effort can best foster academic innovation. Input into the Bamboo process was sought from individuals who come from a diverse range of institutions (small liberal arts colleges to research universities), organizations (consortia to content providers), professional backgrounds (faculty, librarians, researchers, IT leaders, and technical specialists), and regions.”

Syd Baumann, Senior Programmer/Analyst, Brown University, in Providence, Rhode Island; Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) guru and XML troubleshooter.

In fall 2008, after I had started going to workshops organized by and also after I was well into working on the XML document and also TEI tagging, I was alerted by Peggy Firman, Librarian at the University of Puget Sound and the campus liaison to NITLE (National Institute for Technology and Liberal Education), to a NITLE-sponsored TEI workshop at Wheaton College, in Norton, Massachusetts conducted by Syd and his colleague Julia Flanders. As is explained on the website for the workshop authored by the organizer Scott Hamlin, Director of Technology for Research and Instruction, Wheaton College: “The Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) has evolved to become the resource on which scholars depend when transcribing and encoding primary source and archival texts. Text encoders create true digital scholarship through their work – employing a set of eXtensible Markup Language (XML)-based standards to create richly annotated digital files in an open non-proprietary scheme.”

I was the slow student at the workshop, and I am not at all ashamed to have to admit this. Syd was appalled that despite all the (botched) TEI encoding I had done over the course of the past half year, I had never “validated” my document; he was positively apoplectic to discover that I had many thousands of validation errors. In just two days of working on my XML file, Syd probably did more to propel my project forward than anyone besides Pete, Quinn, and Jacob—and his help and guidance allowed me to take charge of at least the TEI end of this project, instead of having to continue to rely on Pete, himself at the time no better versed in TEI standards than I. It felt good to take ownership of some of the programming, although then I began foolishly to hope that maybe I too could master the rudiments of XSLT (hopes very quickly dashed by both Pete and Quinn,). In short, Syd showed me the proper way to do TEI encoding, and although I still at times probably do things idiosyncratically, I now know to check with Syd before I think of doing anything truly unvalidatable! Syd has been very generous with his time—as so many have been who have been roped into this project—it has been nearly a year since that workshop at Wheaton College; but he still patiently helps me out with my text encoding problems.

Roberto Marques, University of Chicago, in Chicago, Illinois: website design.

When I saw the first mockup of the website I nearly fell off my chair, because it looked like someone with an aesthetic sense had had a hand in designing it—that someone turned out to be Roberto, whom I then had the pleasure of meeting with a number of times at workshops. His talents firmly convinced me of the need to assemble teams when it comes to humanities research computing projects. Professors are content experts; we need to learn to rely more on the talents and guidance of programmers, web designers, and digital repository managers. It is furthermore hoped that fellow content experts, i.e., Barlach scholars, will be motivated to collaborate to improve this online resource.

Kaylea Hascall, Director for Scholarly Technology and Research Computing (STARC), University of Chicago, in Chicago, Illinois and project staff member, directly responsible for accepting our proposal as a demonstrator project and then working with Quinn and others in the early stages of the project.

Elmar Jansen, prominent Barlach-scholar, in Berlin.

H.O. Müller, formerly Director of the Ernst Barlach Museum, in Ratzeburg in the early 1990s

Eva Caspers, formerly Director of the Ernst Barlach Haus Stiftung Hermann F. Reemtsma, in Hamburg in the early 1990s

Jansen, Müller, and Caspers—when I first met these prominent individuals as a young scholar straight out of graduate school, all of them had been producing scholarship related to Barlach and his works for many many years. They all graciously opened up their archives to me, helpfully provided me with accurate and detailed lists of their own publications, generously offered their personal copies of valuable and often difficult to track down material, kindly provided letters of introduction to other archives—always trusting that I would at some point produce a bibliographical listing of secondary literature. The main reason I did not publish this listing in the mid-1990s was because when H.O. Müller showed me the newspaper clippings archive at the Altes Vatershaus in Ratzeburg with what I guessed were tens of thousands of reviews of exhibitions and performances of plays I realized I would need many more years if I was going to account for as much secondary literature as I could identify. It took me a good while to accept the fact that I would simply have to modify my goal—I just have to recognize that my bibliographical listing remains incomplete, when it comes to accounting for material in daily newspapers. Barlach scholars would be well served were someone to scan in all the clippings in the archive and add the bibliographical data to the current website. Jansen, Müller, and Caspers have probably all moved on in their careers; I do want especially Jansen and Müller to know that I have never forgotten their generosity and kindness when I was a young scholar. They inspired me to try to produce a listing that they would have deemed nearly up to their own exacting standards of scholarship.

Jochen Wohlfeil, Resident Director, Duke Study Abroad, in Berlin, throughout the 1990s

I met Jochen in 1981 when he spent a year at Indiana University as a DAAD Anglistenprogramm scholar. I spent many a time with him in Berlin over the course of the next couple of decades, both when I was working on my dissertation and then afterwards as a young scholar—the Wohlfeil family always let me stay with them while I was conducting research for the bibliographical listing and for other projects. There are no more gracious or generous hosts than Jochen and his wife Mechthild.

John Finney, Associate Dean (Retired), University of Puget Sound, in Tacoma, Washington, from the late 1980s until his retirement in the early 2000s

Because of his involvement with the University Enrichment Committee, all of my requests for funding were routed through him. My guess would be that he amassed as thick a file on the Barlach-project as on any project at the university over the course of his last twenty years as Associate Dean. I promised John, and the UEC even allocated money for, a hardcopy of the bibliographical listing, so he could use it as a doorstop in his house. John was always so generous and encouraging—he always made sure I was funded as fully as possible. I always appreciated that about John.

University of Puget Sound: Sabbatical Leave and John Lantz Sabbatical Enhancement Award (Spring 2008); Martin Nelson Award for Summer Research (summers 2007, 1998, 1990); University Enrichment Committee (various grants)

Even though I stopped working intensively on this project for close to a decade, putting it aside even though I had a contract to publish the camera-ready copy I had already produced—while I was spinning my wheels in the quicksand of semiotic theory—I continued to receive support for this project, in every respect, from colleagues in my department, in Humanities, and (especially most recently) at various levels of the administration.

The National Endowment for the Humanities: Travel to Collections Grant (summer 1992)